southern Canada and the USA south to the Gulf Coast
In between 8 and 11,5 centimeter
depending on local conditions, 1 to 5 flights annually. Pupae overwinter.
Betula (best), Tilia and Ulmus are good alternatives
Not difficult. Fast growing when kept warm. Within 4 weeks the caterpillars are ready to pupate. Keep in well ventilated plastic containers when young (first 3 instars), but move to a netted cage when older. The pupal stage is short (only 2 to 3 weeks) in between summer flights. In autumn, when you no longer want another flight, place the pupae in the fridge, where they can stay until next spring.